Austria imposes the highest fines in Europe for violating diesel bans and low-emission zones, according to new research.
Austrian authorities charge up to €2,180 for violators – the next highest is the UK, with fines up to £1,138.
Auto parts company Kfzteile24 based its findings on data from UrbanAccessRegulations.eu and its map offers a comparison between 350 cities across Europe.
The overview outlines examples of vehicles already affected by low-emission zones and driving diesel bans - and those likely to be affected in the near future.
Italy has 100 low-emission zones – the highest number in Europe. Cities such as Asti, Mondovi, and Acqui Terme have access restrictions for vehicles which are not environmentally friendly. Since November 2007, vehicles weighing more than 3.5 tonnes have been banned from driving in the historic centres of the cities.
In France, Marseille, Nice and Lyon intend to start implementing low-emission zones for trucks in 2020. Also, Lyon is to implement a low-emission zone free for diesel vehicles in category Euro 3 weighing up to 3.5 tonnes, and Euro 4 for heavier vehicles by 2020. It is hoping to increase these categories to Euro 5 and Euro 6 by the following year.
Madrid intends to allow only emission-free vehicles in the greater city area. However, Rome wants to ban diesel vehicles from the entire city from 2024.
Kfzteile24 says its study revealed that the bans mostly affect larger vehicles like lorries and buses while newer diesel models (Euro 3-6, created after the year 2000) are largely unaffected. In addition, the restrictions tend to be limited to more central streets, rather than widespread across the city.
In the UK, London plans to introduce a low-emission zone in April which will require vehicles to meet emissions standards or pay a daily charge when travelling into the centre.